Glen Small – Self Consuming Cities, Biospheres & Green Machine Megastructures

Green Machine - Glen SmallGreen Machine – Glen Small [1977-1980]

West Coast Architect Glen Small, an early proponent of environmentally aware architecture, has documented a large range of projects at his website including his well-known proposals Green Machine, Biomorphic Biosphere and Downtown Troposphere. Forget about clinical isometric models, here much of the documentation consist of loose organic sketches of freeform biomorphic canopies and archigram-esque modulars covered with vegetation. These eco-utopian futurologies would not seem out of place within the genre of sc-fi illustration.

Green Machine - Glen SmallGreen Machine – Glen Small [1977-1980]

Green Machine - Glen SmallGreen Machine – Glen Small [1977-1980]

Flying House - Glen SmallFlying House – Glen Small [1972]

Flying House - Glen SmallFlying House – Glen Small [1972]

Biomorphic Biosphere intended to extend the urban environment with the addition of a 8000 ft high spanned structure creating a micro climate of its own – ‘a condition where the air would rise, cool and fall and be collected in the reservoirs’. The structure would expand and retract in relation to population requirements – if the population decreased significantly the building cycle would reverse the biosphere would begin to consume itself.

Biomorphic Biosphere - Glen SmallBiomorphic Biosphere: Computerized Building Machine Extruding Compression Structure with Plant Growth – Glen Small [1972]

 BiomorphicBiosphere - Glen SmallBiomorphic Biosphere: Cross-section elevation – Glen Small [1972]

 Biomorphic Biosphere - Glen SmallBiomorphic Biosphere: Stationary Grid Growth Models – Glen Small [1972]

 Biomorphic Biosphere - Glen SmallBiomorphic Biosphere: Stationary Pattern for a City That Would Grow From a Small Grid – Glen Small [1972]

 BiomorphicBiosphere - Glen SmallBiomorphic Biosphere: Suitcase Transportation Modular – Glen Small [1972]

 VerticalCity - Glen SmallVertical City – Glen Small [1966]

In his most well-know work, Green Machine, Airstream trailer living pods were to be suspended on a crystalline lattice. Green Machine worked with the idea of restricted and compacted living space while simultaneously exploring the potential possibilities of the dynamics of modularity and expansive reconfiguration.

Related Posts:

Floraskin – Eilfried Huth & Günther Domenig

Mind Expanders – Haus-Rucker-Co

Drop City – Colonizing consciousness with abodes of Truncated Icosorhombic Dodecahedra

One Response to “Glen Small – Self Consuming Cities, Biospheres & Green Machine Megastructures”

  1. tony writes:

    hi there, did you see this website?

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Selected Tweets #21: Anechoic Abstractions, Hierarchical Microarchitectures & Programmable Matter

500 Years Away - Adam Ferriss 500 Years Away – Adam Ferriss

Selected tweets from my Twitter stream: @MrPrudence

Dividierend Series – Deskriptiv. Rendered silicate-like objects with subdivided textured surfaces.

500 Years Away – Adam Ferriss. Pixel sorting algorithms create structural reconfigurations of astrophysical imagery.

Doilies – Laura Splan. Computerized machine embroidered lace doilies modeled on viruses.

Anechoic abstractions – photographs of an anechoic radio chamber in Denmark by Alastair Philip Wiper

Invasive-Species_Dillon-MarshInvasive Species – Dillon Marsh

Minimal/abstract music notation [1960's] from composer of Chance/Fluxus music, and Cage student, Toschi Ichiyanagi.

Creating Civilizations – Robert Strati’s architectural/mathematical/notational schematic fictions.

Invasive Species – Dillon Marsh. Photographs of disguised cell phone tower encroachment.

Erosion Series – Tamsin Van Essen. Monochromatic ceramic designs simulating biological erosion and viral infection.

Narrative Cities – Thien K. Nguyen. Gridded Urban systems stretched & morphed by ‘narratives into absurdities.’

The-Grand-Canyon_3_May_1973The Grand Canyon, 3 May 1973 – Landsat

When the Earth Began Looking at Itself: the Landsat Program - cartography & Earth sciences in 1972.

Hierarchical Microarchitectures – Noorduin et al. Manipulated chemical gradients generate organic growth in crystals.

Convozine on Etienne-Louis Boullee’s Memorial to Newton. Arquitectura en Dibuixos Exemplars continues the utopian architectonic spheromania.

The Territory of the Virtually Unknown. Dpr-barcelona explores extremities of architecture in the North & South poles.

Sol LeWitt: Four Basic Kinds of Straight Lines (PDF) [1969] compositions/lines defined by mathematical permutations.

dividierend-04Dividierend – Deskriptiv

Pulse – a suspended digitally fabbed sculpture of Ursula Major and 3d printed Mobius Strips – works by Andrew F. Scott.

Proto-computing – Mitchell Whitelaw interviews Ralf Baecker on ‘programmable matter’, proto-computational materiality & universal machines.

‘Please do not wiggle its frequency control, as you might inadvertently discover a new musical vocabulary’ – Mark Fell on the epiphanies of technological constraint.

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James Seawright – Interactive Light & Sound Installations [1965-71]

Electronic Peristyle - James SeawrightElectronic Peristyle – James Seawright [1968]

James Seawright’s Electronic Peristyle [1968] is a work emblematic of the sensory ‘Magic Theatre’ exhibition held at the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery in Kansas City, 1968. The show, refracting cultural interests of the era, included stroboscopic light and sound installations, optical works and mirrored chambers by artists and musicians such as Robert Whitman and Terry Riley. Electronic Peristyle contained a transparent plastic sphere, home to 12 photocells, which were housed above a cylindrical box capable of firing 12 individual light beams. Gallery visitors were able to occlude the paths of the light beams ensuring they did not reach their photoelectric destinations. These interruptions of light were responsible for a random participatory sonic composition where the pitch of oscillators and volume of amplifiers were changed over time. ‘By walking on the heightened floor visitors could listen to the constantly changing data decoded into a melodious, background of sound.’

Electronic Peristyle - James SeawrightElectronic Peristyle – James Seawright [1968]

The construction of Electronic Peristyle reflects the architectural experimentation of the same era. A clear acrylic spherical object is centered inside of circle of components echoing the futuristic and utopian counter cultural works of Haus Rucker, for example. The kinetic works of Lazlo Moholy Nagy (especially his Light-Space Modulator) and Nicolas Schöffer’s cybernetic sculptures are also intimated upon.

Scanner - James SeawrightWatcher (in Life Magazine) – James Seawright [1965]

Dome - James SeawrightDome – James Seawright [1965]

Scanner - James SeawrightScanner – James Seawright [1966]

Thomas Dreher explores the process and electronic components of this early interactive light/sound installation in detail and also correctly proposes Seawright anticipating the computer aided interactive installations of the mid and late 90s.

Network III - James Seawright Network III – James Seawright [1971]

pdp8lPDP-8L computer that James Seawright used to program Network III

In another interactive work by Seawright, Network III, pressure sensitive floor sensors activate an array overhead lamps, 400 in total, to create illuminated patterns. The system was controlled by a PDP 8-L computer programmed by Seawright using the machines native assembly language.’ If three or more visitors entered the space, then the program shut down with ‘a spectacular blowup’ due to ‘processing speed and memory capacity limitations’.

Further Readings:
Light and Sound Installations by James Seawright and Vladimir Bonacic – Thomas Dreher

Further Viewing:
Video documentation of Seawright’s more recent kinetic sculptures.

Related posts:
The Spatio-Lumino-Chronodynamic Towers & Sculptures of Nicolas Schöffer

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Daniel Karas – Biomechanoid Dwellings & Deformation Ornamentation

Kiai - Daniel Karas & Jeff HalsteadKiai – Daniel Karas & Jeff Halstead

Daniel Karas uses organic forms at the extreme end of complexity to generate pathologically excessive ornamental forms and biomorphic architectural speculations. Cross-sections of building propositions are presented as deformed cavernous geological forms composed of complex amalgams of shapes, reminiscent of cooled molten material, where negative space is intended for habitation. The process of miscreation and malformation play a key role in these works as ‘different chunks are continually being dismembered, combined, left in place or removed again – constituting a process of production based in deformity’ In the work Limn, with Austin Samson, hatching is used as a technique to accentuate light, shade and shadow. The sharp graphic lines of differing densities reinforce a graphic etched woodcut aesthetic resulting in rich anachronistic biomechanoid dwellings.

Limn - Daniel Karas & Austin SamsonLimn – Daniel Karas & Austin Samson

Limn - Daniel Karas & Austin SamsonLimn – Daniel Karas & Austin Samson

Limn - Daniel Karas & Austin SamsonLimn – Daniel Karas & Austin Samson

Limn - Daniel Karas & Austin SamsonLimn – Daniel Karas & Austin Samson

Limn - Daniel Karas & Austin SamsonLimn – Daniel Karas & Austin Samson

Sofi - Daniel KarasSofi – Daniel Karas

Sofi - Daniel KarasKiai – Daniel Karas

Biocyth - Daniel KarasBiocyth – Daniel Karas

Biocyth - Daniel KarasBiocyth – Daniel Karas

Related post:
Hypogean Wildstyle: Dominik Strzelec’s Byzantine Geology

One Response to “Daniel Karas – Biomechanoid Dwellings & Deformation Ornamentation”

  1. Link Latte 220 | Golden Gate Daily writes:

    […] of a New China – [wow pic]Unlabeled Nano Ingredients in Your Food – [weird, info]Biomechanoid Dwellings – [geek art concept]“I Have a Date with a Big Fish” – [beautiful surreal […]

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Athanasius Kircher – Combinatorial Music, Augmented Face-Substitution & Projection Systems Illustrated in the 17th-Century

cassetta_mathematica_kircherCassetta Mathematica – Athanasius Kircher

Siegfried Zielinski’s chapter on Athanasius Kircher in respect to media archaeology in his book Deep Time of the Media would be hard to beat, exploring as it does the essential contributions Kircher made in the areas of combinatorial music, visual projection techniques and augmented reality among many others. Regardless of whether you subscribe to the now commonly held view that Kircher was a serial plagiarist who rarely credited his sources or not, there is no mistaking the incredible task of overseeing the illustrations alone created in his collected 16,000 pages of life time published works. It’s likely that Kircher’s genius was in the synthesis of knowledge on optics, acoustics and mathematics,which he collected from globe-trotting Jesuit priests, into a coherent classification system that lead to novel inventions and fantastical proposals – many of which are still being explored today.

Icon_Wheel_KircherIcon Wheel [ or Metaphor Machine] – Athanasius Kircher

spiral_shaped_amplification_system_kircherAmplification System – Athanasius Kircher

In Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae [1646] Kircher explores the nature of light, lenses, mirrors, sundials, astronomy and gives early descriptions of the camera obscura. One extremely interesting image in the light of recent well-known cam tracking face substitution work is the Icon Wheel, or Metaphor Machine as Robert Hooke called the invention. The mechanism was designed as an apparatus to metamorphosize faces in order to create an allegorical transformation of the observer. On entering a chamber the observer first sees the sun, then their own head, subsequently their transformation into a range of animals. Other illustrations reveal a range of projection techniques for images and text in darkened rooms using different systems of lenses and catotrophic lamps. In other sections elaborate illustrations outline optical effects with mirrors where kinetic models and marionettes are made to appear to come to life.

Organ_Musurgia_Universalis_kircherOrgan Musurgia Universalis – Athanasius Kircher

alphabetum_kricherAlphabetum – Athanasius Kircher

Kircher’s Musurgia Universalis [1650] explores sound, music and musical scales in relation to mathematical principles and astronomical readings [often derived from Pythagorean teachings] There are diagrams of water-powered automatic organs, systems for transmitting sound to remote places, eavesdropping devices using sound spiral conduits and examples of combinatorial compositional aids to create proto-generative music such as the arca musarithmica. Another combinatorial music composing device, the cassetta mathematica, [or organum mathematicum] uses rotating discs housed in a wooden box to generate compositions.

arca_musarithmica_box_for_rythmic_sequencing_of_notes_kircherArca Musarithmica – Athanasius Kircher

Realising the possibility of endlessly unique musical sequences using random combinations of elements, Kircher remarks on the arca musarithmica ‘Its is apparent from that which is put forward here the infinite number of possible combinations, which are given by the different ordering of the five columns. Assuredly there are so many that had an angel begun with the combinations at the dawning of the World, it would not be finished today’

Links to:

Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae – Athanasius Kircher
Musurgia Universalis – Athanasius Kircher

One Response to “Athanasius Kircher – Combinatorial Music, Augmented Face-Substitution & Projection Systems Illustrated in the 17th-Century”

  1. Bob Fludd writes:

    He was a bright spark alright…

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Floraskin – Eilfried Huth & Günther Domenig

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Eilfried Huth’s and Günther Domenig’s biomorphic Floraskin, an unbuilt architectural project from 1971, apples botanical forms and eukaryotic cell structures as a blueprint for an organic modular building. Extending ideas explored in their well-known megastructural work Überbauung Ragnitz, which was intended to be adaptable according to daily spatial demand, the project consists of biokinetic vacuole’s leading to ‘proliferating’ cells arranged in radial patterns and connected by stem corridors. Floraskin was proposed as a living and mutating hotel for ‘alternative tourism’ to be located in the resort of Ifni in Morocco.

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Floraskin - Huth & DomenigFloraskin – Huth & Domenig

Related Posts:
René Binet – Esquisses Décoratives & the Protozoic Façade of Porte Monumentale
Patabotany #3: Growth Assembly
Patabotany #2: Grow your own Worlds
Patabotany #1: At the Libarynth

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Spatiologies – Vittorio Giorgini

Giorgini_Walking_WalkingTall_1981-83Walking Tall – Vittorio Giorgini [1980-81]

Vittorio Giorginis early architectural works allude to the topological features of continuous surfaces like the Möbius strip or the paradoxical, and non-orientable, Klein bottle. His signature compound curvature buildings such as the Casa Saldarini in Italy and the Liberty Center in New York State (unfinished and latter demolished) expose a long-lasting obsession with organic thin-shell manifolds. His book Spatiology: The Morphology of the Natural Sciences in Architecture and Design is an early work on biologically inspired architecture. It contains numerous sketches outlining the use of geometric procedures to generate manifolds and minimal surfaces as solutions to architectural problems.

Giorgini_Walking_WalkingTall_1981-83Walking Tall – Vittorio Giorgini [1980-81]

Giorgini_Walking_WalkingTall_1981-83Walking Tall – Vittorio Giorgini [1980-81]

Giorgini_Walking_WalkingTall_1981-83Walking Tall – Vittorio Giorgini [1980-81]

Giorgini_Walking_WalkingTall_1981-83Walking Tall – Vittorio Giorgini [1980-81]

Giorgini_Walking_WalkingTall_1981-83Walking Tall – Vittorio Giorgini [1980-81]

Giorgini_Walking_WalkingTall_1981-83Walking Tall – Vittorio Giorgini [1980-81]

In a later body of work he explores the use of lattice beams, spatial meshes and tensostructures, sometimes combining both asymmetric and symmetrical modules – good examples are his Walking Tall and Module Octet projects. Walking Tall was a skyscraper designed for New York in 1982-1983. The building, which was intended to rise to a height of more than 250 meters, employs asymmetric tetrahedral elements and is structurally reminiscent of utopian blueprints of the Soviet constructivist architectures of the 1920′s. Giorgini kept long-lasting friendships with the artists Jean Arp and Roberto Matta. The former artist may have left his biomorphic influences on Giorgini’s early topological architectures, while the latter artist’s dynamic three-dimension ‘inscape’ spaces may well be connected to Giorgini’s later angular works

Giorgini_spatiologyPlate from Spatiology: The Morphology of the Natural Sciences in Architecture and Design – Vittorio Giorgini

Giorgini_spatiologyPlate from Spatiology: The Morphology of the Natural Sciences in Architecture and Design – Vittorio Giorgini

Giorgini_spatiologyPlate from Spatiology: The Morphology of the Natural Sciences in Architecture and Design – Vittorio Giorgini

Vitorio_Giorgini_Module_Octet_1991Module Octet – Vittorio Giorgini [1991]

Vitorio-Giorgini_Module_Octet_1991Module Octet – Vittorio Giorgini [1991]

Vitorio-Giorgini_RiverCrane_1993_2River Crane – Vittorio Giorgini [1993]

Related Posts:

Drop City – Colonizing consciousness with abodes of Truncated Icosorhombic Dodecahedra

René Binet – Esquisses Décoratives & the Protozoic Façade of Porte Monumentale

Yuri Avvakumov – Agitarch Structures: Reconfiguring Utopia

The Architectural Fantasies of Iakov Chernikhov

The Constructivist Cosmologies of Richard Lippold

One Response to “Spatiologies – Vittorio Giorgini”

  1. Marco Del Francia writes:

    excellent site and congratulations to remember the work of Vittorio Giorgini

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Quantum Objects – Frederik de Wilde

Quantum Foam – Frederik de WildeQuantum Foam – Frederik de Wilde

Frederik de Wilde renders intangible, inaudible and invisible phenomena into sculptural forms and polished 3-dimensional data visualisations. Data derived from quantum processes, complex systems, aspects of psychophysics, nanotechnological and biological systems provide base materials for the works and allow Frederik to ask ‘how do we connect the blind spots, respectively, between art and science?

Quantum-Object-#1_Frederik_de_WildeQuantum Object #1 – Frederik de Wilde

In works such as Quantum Object, Quantum Foam and SoN01R, sculptural order and geometric exactitude provides counterpoint and playful contradiction to the preconceived idea of noise, randomness and entropy. While society streamlines to greater technological order, where perceived accuracy is prized and the errors of randomness are to be avoided, actual true randomness has become a precious commodity. Ironically no computational device can generate true random numbers – we have to rely on natural phenomena such as atmospheric data or stochastic radioactive particle decay for their generation.

Coalface004_Frederik_de_WildeCoalface – Frederik de Wilde

Coalface004_Frederik_de_WildeCoalface – Frederik de Wilde

Coalface001_Frederik_de_WildeCoalface – Frederik de Wilde

Eschewing the purely aesthetic, Frederik’s works raise questions regarding the dissemination of art works in the scientific continuum, they explore the artistic and scientific contract and its related social and political implications. Conjectural solutions to social problems and political questions are embedded in his artistic output. A good example of the latter concern is M1NE#1, a sculpture made by direct laser sintering of microscopic titanium particles which visualises sensitive data of seven coal mines in Belgium.

Fade-2-Infinity_-n1_Frederik_de_WildeFade 2 Infinity – Frederik de Wilde

M1ne-IIII_Frederik_de_WildeM1ne IIII – Frederik de Wilde

A recent interview at We Make Money Not Art is the perfect port of introduction to Frederik’s works and ideas. It contains interesting historical anecdotes and references to quantum material innovations alongside dystopian predictions – proving that the ideas of Richard Feynman are as equally crucial to Frederik’s works as references, as are Malevich’s paintings.

Related Posts:
A Million Random Digits with 100,000 Normal Deviates [and other psuedo-random thoughts]
Robert Horvitz – Quantum Symmetries
Owen Schuh – Calculation and Iteration Drawings

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The Writing of Stones – Roger Caillois

AgateAgate – Smithsonian Institution

Surrealist and Sociologist Roger Caillois was known for his writings on biomimicry, especially within the insect world, pareidolia and lithic scrying. His latter interest provided us with The Writing of Stones, a book in which he unravels the ‘unfathomable graphic madness’ etched onto the rocks contained within the ‘archives of geology’. Each chapter of the book is dedicated to a species of rock – in each he channels ever increasingly dense, extravagant, and at times morbid tales from the authorless inscriptions each stone contains.

‘An Agate may shadow forth a tree, a forest, a whole landscape….clouds, lightning, a great sea full of fleeing galleys….Such objects may resemble a mountain or a cave – they reduce space and condense time’

orbits_jasper ‘Orbits’ Jasper – from the Writing of Stones

‘The Japsers of Oregon are unrivalled for the complexity of their carved designs [...] Universe of scrolls, branches, pleura [...] sand rhythmically modulated by wind’. On the Idaho Japsers (one he names ‘Orbit’) he says ‘they proclaim the circuits of planets or electrons around their invisible centres or nuclei [...] The are like the rings of armillary sphere, with their zodiacs and ecliptics and equinoctial zones – bracelets for cosmographers or nuclear physicists’ Long before the invention chaos theory and fractal mathematics he realises that ‘they reflect the phantom revolutions which, alike on a vast and microscopic scale, unflaggingly repeat the same pattern’

oregonJasper_01Oregon Jasper

Of the Septaria he remarks that ‘occasionally they open out into ravines lined with little crystals and that ‘they form patterns which explode; showers of many sided cells, sprays of dodecahedra, cobwebs spun in the void containing no lurking spider’. Intoxicated further by these glyphs he finds ‘floating phantoms, demons with eyes on stalks, a Sabbath of spirals or Bacilli’ and later on ‘elemental columns of chromosomes, protozoa and centipedes.

As the book goes on, the inspection and introspection shift from empirical references to more outlandish ones, his isomorphisms eventually dissolve discretion and to gravitate towards the morbid. Uncensored geopoetic beautific reveries are gradually displaced by grotesque fantasies – petrified mutilations and putrefactions. Caillios invites to us dwell on ‘muscles laid open in their cavities of bone….lopped off breasts…gnarled phalluses…frogs crucified by galvanic currents…eruptions of boils or buboes on an infected skin…intestinal worms glistening with the biles and juices digesting them…rotting shell-less molluscs…gobs of spit and knuckle bones softened by acid’. We enter a ‘a mauve and lunatic life, proliferating without law or limit, feverishly breeding goiters; a ravenous, shifting universe in which details are so clear it is almost endless’

Septaria_R_WarinSeptaria – R.Warin

In one section Caillois identifies Cubist structures reflected in one particular stone and shows that its our contact with the works of Braque and Picasso that forces us to see these patterns accordingly. So the lithic pareidoliac must rely on her database of memories to make sense of these patterns and forms.

‘To be moved by the patterns one needs to know already the secret it unveils or recalls, one needs to have learned from scientific works of the thousands of patterns which this one brings together, and without which it would remain what it is really is – chance curves providentially assembled by another chance and randomly colored by metallic deposits’

Ocean-JasperOcean Jasper – Marco Campos Venuti

Caillois’s own database was one defined in pre-digitised World. A re-reading of those very same stones today might bring to light new kinds stories riddled with algorithmic organisms or species born of New Aesthetic, where Boids trace trajectories defined by the chaotic parabolas of a Lorenz Attractor and Cellular Automata riot into ever shifting and unpredictable grid patterns.

Previously at Dataisnature:

The Wave – Earth Waveform Oscillations
Spreading Time Chromatographically – The Painted Hills of the John Day Fossil Beds National Monument
Prehistoric Messages of the Widmanstätten Cursive
The White Sinter Terraces of Roto-Màhànà & the Wai-o-Tapu Champagne Pool
Banded Agates, Sonic Hydrodynamics & the BZ Reaction

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Primal Generative: Form Constants & Entoptic Geometry

Subjective_visual_phenomena_-Johann_PurkinjeSubjective Visual Phenomena – Johann Purkinje [From Beiträge zur Kenntniss des Sehens in subjectiver Hinsicht, 1819]

The most primal generative visual experiences may be ones created by the visual cortex alone, or ones involving the visual cortex in close collaboration with entheogenic triggers or external psycho-visual simulate, such as stroboscopic lighting. Precursory research material includes Johann Purkinje’s investigations into subjective visual phenomena in Experiments on the Physiology of the Senses and Heinrich Klüver’s later extrapolation of the four groups of entoptic visual phenomena he called Form Constants. The four groups, lattices, cobwebs, tunnels, and spirals, where annotated by Klüver while studying the effects of mescaline.

A recent paper by Tom Froese and others explores the role of Turing instabilities in the generation of spatio-temporal patterns in the disinhibited visual system and its relationship to the prevalence of certain geometric patterns.

‘One of the originally proposed mechanisms for geometric hallucinations is that of a neural Turing mechanism, embodied in the Wilson–Cowan equations [1973] [..] For example, action potential propagation along a neuron’s axon can be directly described by reaction–diffusion equations, and reaction–diffusion equations are analogical to the Wilson–Cowan neural network equations (H. R. Wilson, 1999, pp. 267–268). We can think of the reaction component as the interactions between neuronal cells, and of the diffusion component as the spread of neural activity through local synaptic connections. Similarly, the local structure of neural interconnectivity dictates the type of emergent phenomena that can be produced. Neural network models of geometric hallucinations have gradually incorporated these empirical insights from neural anatomy and physiology, including the spatial arrangement of different neuronal cell types.’

FormConstantsHeinrich Klüver’s Form Constants

The paper goes on to say:

‘A striking feature that differentiates geometric hallucinations from other visual experiences is that they are generated intrinsically when the subject has been decoupled from its environment. The patterns form irrespective of our lifetime learned memories. Indeed, they could be considered internally directed perceptual experiences, since if the proposed models hold true, they are directly formed from the actual biological structure of the visual system. We are said to have a strange subjective experience of looking into oneself, where the patterns we see directly expose the underlying operation of our brains.’

The hyper-chromatic geologies found in the generative work of John Mccabe, who uses Turing instability equations, certainly hints at psychedelic topologies that can be created by these kinds of mathematical exchanges. Its a tidy thesis to suggest that visual representations, of this kind, are isomorphic to the processes involved. When Tim Leary compared psychedelics, in a sense, to the microscope, perhaps it was not entirely metaphorical. If these models are correct the psychotropic vision is a snapshot of the visual cortex looking at itself and looking at its own neural processes – mimicking recursive loops, and algorithms, in order to plot and sketch form constants on its own display.

In The Signs of All Times: Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Palaeolithic Art Lewis-Williams and Dowson explore evidence of motifs and compositions derived from entoptic phenomena in prehistoric art. The earliest humans may have ascribed enough relevance to entoptic visualisations to begin the journey into pictorial representation and subsequently writing.

Further Readings:

Turing instabilities in biology, culture and consciousness on the enactive origins of symbolic material culture – Tom Froese

Purkinje’s Vision: The Dawning of Neuroscience – Nicholas J. Wade and Josef Brožek [PDF]

Mechanisms of Hallucinations – Heinrich Klüver

What Geometric Visual Hallucinations Tell us About the Visual Cortex – Paul Bressloff and Jack Cowan

Aesthetics Beyond the Phenomenal: Tony Conrad’s THE FLICKER

Previously at Dataisnature:

Kyuha Shim – Spherical Form Constants & Syllabic Constructs

Form Constants – Wendy Collin Sorin

The Generative Song & Sound Pattern Matrixes of the Shipibo Indians

Mind Expanders – Haus-Rucker-Co

One Response to “Primal Generative: Form Constants & Entoptic Geometry”

  1. runeB writes:

    thanks, this was great reading!

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